Lexical-functional grammar analysis of Chines
Edited by Adams B. Bodomo and LUKE Kang Kwang 宝翱潼，陆镜光主编
This special issue of the Journal of Chinese Linguistics is a collection of selected papers from two workshops on Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) Analysis of Chinese organized at the University of Hong Kong in 2001 and 2002. All but one of the papers appearing in this volume were read at one or the other of the two workshops. The themes of the workshops addressed the need to explore ways in which some aspects of the structure of Chinese may be analyzed in LFG or related constraint-based grammar formalisms. We will first point out some salient features of the Chinese language and outline some possible questions and implications that these might have for LFG. We will then summarize the various papers that appear in this volume, pointing to the issues that are being discussed and the solutions that are proposed.
In this paper, four-inversion construction in Mandarin Chinese, including locative inversion, dative shift, resultative inversion, and domain inversion, are accounted for within a simplified lexical mapping theory (LMT). The simplified LMT differs from the conventional LMT in several respects. First, it allows a-structure roles to be unspecified, underspecified, or fully specified for syntactic function assignment. Second, a single unified mapping principle replaces previous multiple mapping principles and well-formedness conditions. Inversion may be induced by a language-specific morphosyntatic operation that affects only the syntactic assignment of argument roles to grammatical functions, as in locative inversion and dative shift. Or, it may be the consequence of a morpholexical operation that creates a composite role and thus also the competition for syntactic function assignment between its two composing roles, as in resultative inversion and domain inversion.
Kang Kwong Luke 陆镜光; Adams B.Bodomo; Owen T.Nancarrow
This paper examines the subject condition in LFG using data from Cantonese. The subject condition states that every predicator must have a subject (Bresnan 2001). Cantonese, like other Chinese dialects, has grammatical properties, which lead to difficulties for morphological as well as structural functional specification. It is a pro-drop language, but unlike other pro-drop languages such as Italian and Spanish, it exhibits little verbal morphology. At the same time it is a topic prominent language which lacks clear-cut word order criteria that can be called upon in the identification of subjects. We first document four kinds of sentences in which the subject is not explicitly present. We then illustrate how implicit subjects can be identified through a detailed analysis of a connected text. On the basis of this, it is proposed that in order to handle functional specifications satisfactorily in Cantonese, the lexical mapping theory be augmented by pragmatic-discourse criteria including information from the immediate speech situation and discourse topics. In this way, the universality of the subject condition can be maintained.
This paper is a study of reciprocal verbs in Mandarin, which are derived by replacing one syllable of the verb stem with the reciprocal prefix hu ‘RCP’, the first syllable of the reciprocal adverbial huxiang ‘mutually’. A reciprocal verb can either reduce or retain the valence of its verb stem. It reduces the valence of its verb stem by binding off one of the arguments of its verb stem. This kind of reciprocal verb is called a Valence-Reduced (VR) reciprocal verb. A reciprocal verb retains the valence of its verb stem by inducing a binding relation between the subject of the reciprocal verb and its other argument. The reciprocal verbal prefix hu is argued to be responsible for the valence reduction/retention of reciprocal verbs. The Thematic Role Hierarchy is argued to determine which argument of the verb stem of a reciprocal verb is bound off or anaphorically bound. Lexical-Mapping Theory is used to mark the bound argument of the verb stem. A lexical binding rule binds this bound argument with the highest thematic role on the argument structure to form a composite thematic role. This is how a VR reduces the valence of its verb stem. For a VI to retain the valence of its verb stem, a syntactic binding rule marks the highest thematic role on the argument structure with ANT(ECEDENT) and the bound argument with ANA(PUOR). All of the arguments on the argument structure are mapped to grammatical functions (GFs). The Inside-out Functional Uncertainty determines exactly which GF can be anaphorically bound.
本篇旨在讨论汉语交互动词，如互赠，互踢等的语法现象。当 [互] 与动词词干结合时，所形成之交互动词可与原词干拥有相同之论元数，或减少原词干之论元数。不管是维持原词干之论元数或减少其论元数，[互]影响相同之论元。本篇欲探讨与交互动词有关之三个问题。一，那些论元可以被约束？何种机制可以决定此一时约束现象？二，对方/彼此可出现在句中的那些位置？有何机制可解释此一现象？三，交互动词允不允许长程约束？如果允许，有何机制及条件？本篇将论证，论元的约束发生在论元结构，而论旨角色阶级决定可约束的论元为何。其它如句法功能 (GF) 或斜格性 (obliqueness) 均不影响此一约束现象。并利用词汇功能语法 (Lexical Functional Grammar) 中的词汇映照理论 (Lexical Mapping Theory) 与由内而外的功能不确定等式 (Inside-out Functional Uncertainty Equations) 来解释此类动词的句法现象。
This paper discusses the function COMP in the taxonomy of grammatical functions in LFG. It first points out some possible problems for previous proposals for the elimination of COMP and then argues for its existence in the structure of Cantonese. Initial results show that Cantonese is indeed an OBJ/COMP mixed language on the score that there is an alternation of NP OBJs and COMPs in the complementation properties of some predicates. The fact that Cantonese does not meet many of the other criteria for mixed languages, such as coordination, passivization, unbounded dependency, and complementation of nouns, adjectives and prepositions, however, suggests that the concept of mixed languages should be extended to include degrees or extents to which a language can be regarded as a mixed language. In this wise, languages that behave like Cantonese should be treated as marginal mixed languages while languages like English that fulfill many of the tests outlined should be treated as elaborate mixed languages. This analysis supports a finer-grained categorization of grammatical functions in theories of grammar.
本文主要讨论粤语的功能。我们首先指出前人研究因取消 COMP 而带来的问题，然后根据粤语语料引入“混合语”的概念。初步的考察结果表明，粤语确实是属于一种混合语。在此基础上，我们提出“混合语”的观点还应该包括混合语的不同程度或等级。本文的分析支持语言学理论的语法功能细分说。
Olivia S.-C Lam 林思骋
This paper focuses on the development of constraints towards a characterization of the serial verb construct. Based on earlier works such as Bodomo (1997, 1998), a number of constraints on verb serialization are critically reviewed with respect to Cantonese. The analysis draws from a corpus of more than 20 paradigmatic sets of sentences in Cantonese. These were collected from written sources, such as magazines, and spoken sources, including face-to-face communication and TV and radio broadcasts (Lam 2001). A set of constraints that characterize verb serialization as a syntactico-semantic construct in Cantonese is developed. These constraints include the following: (a) the subject sameness constraint, (b) the aspect and polarity constraint, (c) the connector constraint, (d) the Predicate constraint, (e) the modal auxiliary constraint, and (f) the XCOMP constraint. These constraints are also believed to be commensurate with certain Lexical-Functional Grammatical (LFG) assumptions of predicates and clauses.
根据前人研究（见Bodomo1997, 1998），本文尝试提出以下一系列的制约，以揭示广州话连谓结构的特点： 1. 共同主语制约 2. 体与极性制约 3. 连谓词制约 4. 谓语制约 5. 情态助动词制约 调查显示，这些制约与词汇功能语法对谓语及分句的理论相符。由此可见，词汇功能语法能够有系统地解释广东话连谓结构的特性，例如体的标记及所组成谓语的语法范畴。
LFG has been widely used to analyze the English language as well as other languages from a purely linguistic point of view. A relatively new direction in the LFG research field is applying it to language computation, ranging from parsing to machine translation. The LFG-based work in Chinese computing is still rather rare. This paper addresses two aspects of the current framework of LFG in terms of its application to the processing of Chinese: it is quite powerful for linguistic representation, even very sophisticated sentential constructions in Chinese can be explained by LFG easily, but it seems not strong enough for Chinese computation –the main weakness is on the computation of semantics. However, it is evident that it is semantic analysis, rather than syntactic analysis, which plays a dominant role in analyzing Chinese sentences. Consequently, the paper suggests some possible augmentation on the framework of LFG: (1) representing semantic constraints in a systematic way; (2) building up the semantic knowledge base to make inference on the augmented framework possible; (3) incorporating statistics into the LFG formalism; and (4) augmenting the operation of unification to fit the statistical computation.
LFG已被广泛用于从语言学的视角分析英语和其他语言。关于LFG研究的一个新的趋势是将之用于语言计算，包括语法自动分析，机器翻译等。基于LFG的汉语计算相关工作迄今为止尚为数不多。本文揭示了LFG现有框架处理汉语时所呈现出的两重性：一方面，它具有强大的语言表示能力，即使结构非常复杂的汉语句子也可以很容易地用LFG予以描述；另一方面，它的计算能力仍然略显不足，主要反映在语义计算上。有证据表明，语义分析（而不是句法分析）在汉语句子分析中占据着支配地位。在上述讨论的基础上，本文进一步提出了对LFG现有框架几点可能的扩展之処：(1) 系统地表示语义约束；(2) 建立相应的语义知识库，使得构造于扩展框架上的推理成为可能；(3) 将统计机制嵌入LFG中；(4) 扩展合一运算以满足统计计算的需要。
Haihua Pan 潘海华; Jianhua Hu 胡建华
This paper shows that the binding properties exhibited by Chinese compound reflexives like ‘ta-ziji’ (s/he-self) can be best explained if an Optimality-Theoretic (OT, Prince & Smolensky 1993) account of reflexivization is adopted. It claims that Prominence and Locality are the two important factors that regulate the interpretation of reflexives in different languages and their different rankings can account for the difference between English and Chinese (PC) in reflexive binding. This paper argues that in Chinese, Prominence Constraint (PC) is ranked higher than Locality Constraint (LC), whereas in English, LC is ranked higher than PC.
本文用优选论（Optimality Theory）的思路来解释汉语复合反身代词的约束特性。本文认为制约反身代词约束的因素主要有两个，一个显著性 (prominence), 另一个是局部性 (locality)。显著性与局部性在不同语言中地位的不同可以解释不同语言中反身代词约束性的不同，汉语复合反身代词与英语反身代词的区别正因为这两个因素在汉，英两种语言中的语法地位不同。本文认为在汉语复合反身代词约束中，显著性限制的地位高于局部性限制，而在英语中，局部性限制的地位则高于显著性限制。